Manual manipulation of wood should be learned before using power tools. Place the wide face of the Tenon on the mortise piece and scribe two lines along the edge of the cheeks with a marking knife and try square. To begin, the mortise and the tenon are made as usual. Create a standard hidden (blind) mortise and tenon joint with just a few tools. I bought a 1/2" (12.7 mm) router bit with a cutting length of 2" (51 mm) for the job. CUT THE TENON CHEEKS. A square edge will allow you to get precise measurements and let you line up all the important points to create a tenon joint and mortise hole. The mortise hole is half done; turn the wood upside down to reveal the other edge of the mortise hole. Additionally, CutTheWood.com participates in various other affiliate programs, and we sometimes get a commission through purchases made through our links. You can find examples of this ancient joint even in Egyptian furniture thousands of years old. Most mortise and tenon joint makers fail to fit the tenon inside the joint at the first try so do not worry about this. Adding a professional touch like mortise and tenon joints looks great but is also practical in making the furniture stand the test of time. The secret is to use time-tested tools as well as hand tools to do the job. The link for “How to make a Mortise and Tenon Joint – The Three Joints” is . It is very commonly used to join rails to the legs of tables or chairs, or fixed shelves to the sidewalls of cabinets or bookcases. Because it has been around so long, and due to the variety of tools and techniques employed to form these workshop workhorses, there are several variations on this simple theme. Explaining the Mortise & Tenon. Mark the wood in close approximation where the mortise hole is going to be placed and where the tenon joint will be. Let the small chisel remove visible chisel marks while the larger chisel can remove more wood along the walls of the mortise. Below is a stage by stage account of the marking and cutting of the mortise part of the joint. No clamps necessary. Mark all timber faces, sides and ends using the same gauge setting. In the tutorial video, sandpaper was not used to finish the mortise hole and tenon joint and a chisel was used to clean up debris. Now we're making the tenon, and we're using the table saw, with a set of Dado Blades. Continue chopping and move from right to left or left to right all the while using the bevel of the chisel to remove waste wood. Here is what you get: You will find that the beveled edge of a chisel is kind of handy to easily remove waste as you drive the tip of the chisel vertically and push waste wood off the hole. You may use sandpaper to make a quick clean up or to cut a few millimeters off the tenon joint so it could fit the mortise hole. Adding to the tenon and filling the mortise are the same solution; either way, the glued up joint is the same, with a 1" tenon going into material that fills the 2" mortise. Step 1 - Marking the Mortise. This is because you’ll find it much easier to shape the tenon to fit into the mortise than to cut the tenon first and try to cut the mortise to accommodate the tenon. The wedged mortise-and-tenon joint isn’t difficult to make, but you should have some experience making standard mortise-and-tenon joints before tackling it. This mark aligns with the jig’s registration line. Mortise and tenon joints are great for doors, chairs and tables. Watch the Video How to make a Mortise and Tenon joint part 1. Find the location of the mortise on a piece of 2 x 4. The router table works well for mortises up to 1⁄4 " wide. Place the tenon inside the vice in a vertical manner so it can receive the mortise. Creating a mortise and tenon joint requires close attention to precision and details. These joints can be used in a variety of applications but the same principle of making them stands true. Then square the mortise walls with chisels. Tenons on a Corner. Consider the different applications of the mortise and tenon joint as you move to another project. Ted's Woodworking Plans contains complete instructions from start to finish, leaving absolutely no guesswork. The top rail and bottom rail join the upright stiles at the corners of the door. Saws and chisels have to be sharp while mallets and hammers have to be in good shape. The mortise and tenon joint is one of the oldest ways to join pieces of wood and is actually one of the most efficient as well. Now that your mortise and tenon joint project is complete, you might want to consider creating other types of joints like the dovetail which will surely improve your skills as a woodworker and a craftsman. Never take for granted your woodworking tools and make sure that these are in tip top shape before you start any project. Always cut the mortise first and cut the tenon second. Assemble the pieces, tapping them together with a wooden mallet, if necessary. George Vondriska teaches you how to use your handheld plunge router or router table to cut perfect mortise and tenon joinery for your woodworking projects. A step-by-step look at the process will give you a good, basic understanding. Step 2: Set the Marking Gauge. While tenons can be cut by hand, modern woodworkers will often employ a band saw or a tenoning jig on a table saw to safely form the tenon. Make the marks with an edge guide or use a jig to hold the sides of the 2 x 4. You will now find that this is easier to do since the other side of the hole has been chopped off halfway. Now begin working on the mortise first; this is the rule of making mortise holes and tenon joints. Modern woodworkers seeking this vintage look sometimes duplicate this technique. This will make it easier to finish the job and will be less stressful on the wrist. A bare-faced mortise and tenon has one edge exposed, normally on the inside of the piece. The mortise and tenon joint is one of the most popular types of woodworking joints and there are literally hundreds of variations. In creating this kind of joint, a woodworker has to use the most efficient tools and use timeless techniques to create a mortise and tenon. The mortise and tenon joint is one of the most popular types of woodworking joints and there are literally hundreds of variations. All you need to do is to drive the chisel hard into the mortise and after about four to five blows you might already be finished with the mortise hole. 4. A woodworker glued together, by mistake, a mortise and tenon joint and now wants to get it apart without breaking the wood. Prepare all the things you will need for the project.. Make sure that everything you need is at hand and have been... 2. It’s Black Friday week on WonderHowTo! Coming in second place next to the dovetail joint, the mortise and tenon joint is the second strongest joint there is! Lay out an edge mortise (Photo 1). Mortise and Tenon Methods Method #1: Drill the mortise. Turn the wood upside down and chop off the remaining wood for the mortise hole, 12. You might end up cutting the mortise too large and ruin your work. Make sure that everything you need is at hand and have been carefully maintained. Measuring the wood alone is important as well as making precise markings on the wood and therefore following these steps closely is essential. Watch this blacksmithing video to forge a tennon and complete a mortise and tennon traditional joint in steel. Traditionally, mortises were cut into the receiving piece of stock using a chisel … Mark this with a pencil and then use a chisel to remove this part. You can also make the tenon a bit less wide and leave a gap on either end which won't significantly effect the strength of the glued joint. Usually, in the shape of a square or rectangular, the two members’ ends are connected by glue or a locking mechanism. The tusk tenon is a time-honored technique that woodworkers have found useful in a variety of ways. How To: Make a Mortise & Tenon Joint on a Router Table: Using proper joinery can take your new furniture build from a cool 5 to a gorgeous 10. Follow these clear instructions to begin the craft of metalsmithing and forge a useful tool. Let us show you how to make precision-fitting joints in a variety of ways including hand tools, power tools, and jigs to make the process easy and repeatable. The tenon from one piece of wood slots perfectly into the mortise of the other piece and when glued, you can usually avoid having to use nails altogether it’s so strong! Mortise & Tenon is used generally when corner joints need to have sturdy frames for making things such as doors, tables, windows, and beds. Only one line is essential: a centerline across the mortise. Chris is a freelance writer who specializes in woodworking, designs his own projects, and is experienced in commercial carpentry. Basically it’s an offset hole in a mortise and tenon joint. … It accommodates the dynamic movement of wood fibers and creates a super strong joint. With this tutorial you will be able to make a mortise hole and tenon joint confidently and will be able to take on any project using similar joint techniques in the most efficient manner. Transfer the marks to the top surface of the board. When you drive in a peg, it pulls the joint tightly together. Today, most woodworkers use glue to secure the tenon inside the mortise, but in years gone by, woodworkers typically fashioned the tenons so that they protruded through the mortised stock and were secured by a wedge or dowel. Your tenon will basically have almost the same with as the mortise but should be a few millimeters larger for a strong and durable fit. You still need to make sure that it fits well inside the mortise and the best way to do it is to fit the two pieces together. With new and more powerful cutting, rotating and fastening tools for woodworking, it’s easy to do away with manually making a mortise and tenon joint. It is easy to identify where the mortise hole will be oriented and where the tenon joint will be placed however how do you really cut the wood precisely to make sure that each piece aligns with the other? A mortise and tenon joint is, at its most basic, a peg fit into a hole. Excess glue seeping out of the joint is best left to dry, then scraped off with a sharp chisel. This above video and article will simplify the process of cutting mortise and tenon joints with only a few traditional hand tools. The basic idea behind the joint is that, in addition to chopping a mortise (typically in a leg or similar member) in to accept the tenon, another mortise is formed in the tenon itself. It has many types, but the basic mortise and tenon joint is made up of two parts. To mark out the tenon you need to start by drawing a line around the entire piece of wood to create the length of the tenon. I already had access to some good quality chisels, and a carpenters square. Remember that any misaligned marks can affect the outcome of the mortise hole and tenon joint so its best to make precise measurements. Cut the mortise and tenon using the width of a ½ -inch chisel, 5. But as a general guideline, make the tenon about 1⁄3 the total thickness of the tenoned workpiece, and about 1⁄2 – 2⁄3 as long as the width of the mortised workpiece. The jig limits the movement of the router during the cut. Use a small knife to create a “knife wall” inside along the edges of the mortise hole. Tools required To make this joint, you’ll need a tablesaw, drill press, plunge router, chisel and a bandsaw. 1. It doesn’t have to be elaborate, just lines marking the mortise ends and centerline. Prepare all the things you will need for the project. Marking out the mortise and tenon . A unique marking tool, similar to a caliper, is used to precisely create markings on wood. Some production workshops use large shapers and table saws to cut mortise and tenons, but with a handheld router, you can accurately cut mortise and tenons in your own home workshop without using heavy equipment. Paul Sellers is an avid woodworker and he rarely uses power tools. His YouTube channel is https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCc3EpWncNq5QL0QhwUNQb7w and his videos teach basic woodworking along with using the right tools and how to care for these tools. A mortise and tenon joint is a variation of joint in which two pieces of wood or other material is connected. Have you ever wanted how to create a mortise and tenon joint? The other type is where a single large wedge is knocked through the section of the tenon that protrudes from the mortise, that essentially pulls the joint together. You need a set of chisels measuring ½ and ¾ of an inch for this project and wider chisels if you plan to create a larger mortise hole and tenon joint. Use the square to check every time you make markings on the wood with your pencil. The tenon should be 1/16" shorter than the depth of the mortise also. Here are tips to help you make the best joints. Remove the wood from the vice and turn it upside down to remove waste. Mortise and Tenon joints are an extremely old construction technique that has stood the test of time and is still being used today. This hand tool should have a good grip and should not be too heavy to strain the arm and wrist. The mortise and tenon joint is basic socket joint used for pick axes and other heavy duty tools. A Mortise Gauge or Marking Gauge: This is important and used to mark lines on the tenon board and mortise, scribing both of them from shoulder to shoulder and the face of the board so you can see where the tenon will go into the mortise. It won't take much depth, so you can just use a sharp hand chisel at a 45 degree angle on the face running parallel with the long grain. Depending on the type of glue you used, there are different options. The fit should be snug but not excessively tight. A mortise and tenon joint seems to look a bit complicated however this is easy when you have the right tools and a good knowledge of how to proceed with the project. So, this has been used in tables, chairs, you name it. Fit the mortise carefully. Loose Tenon Joinery Rout 4 variations of these super-strong joints with a versatile shop made jig. This type is commonly referred to as a “Tusk or Keyed Mortise and Tenon Joint”. Mark the wood in close approximation where the mortise hole is going to be placed and where the tenon joint will be. That would be a good sized joint if one was using 2 x 4 lumber to build a traditional workbench. So let’s start by learning three fast and effective ways to cut the mortise, which is typically a rectangular hole. Take note: before you start working on the mortise, clear everything from the working table. A loose fitting joint will not be strong and may not glue up satisfactorily at all. 2. Wood has to be in a vertical position so you can work on the tenon joint easily. Instead, you need to decide whether you're okay with the existing tenon or want something larger. The mortise and tenon align workpieces as well as create a permanent joint between the two pieces of wood. There are many sizes of mortise and tenon joints but for this tutorial, the width of the mortise is about the width of a ½ -inch chisel. CutTheWood.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Make a drawbored mortise and tenon joint. Then brush glue into the saw kerfs and the mortise’s tapered spaces. Mortise-and-tenon joints depend on great precision when outlining and cutting the tenon on one piece of the stock and the mortise on the adjoining piece. Set the depth stop to drill deep enough to encompass the entire length of the tenon, but no deeper than necessary (unless you are creating a through-tenon). Completing the mortise and tenon joint, How to Transition Between Two Different Wood Floors, How To Apply Water Based Polyurethane To Wood Floors, How to Glue Boards Together For a Table Top, How to Make a Perfect Dovetail Every time, How to Join Two Pieces of Wood At 90 Degrees, How to Resharpen a Japanese Ryoba’s Rip Teeth, How To Join Two Pieces of Wood at Right Angles, How To Join Two Pieces of Wood at a 45 Degree Angle, https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCc3EpWncNq5QL0QhwUNQb7w. Use the same principles for whatever wood is used in any project; just adjust the size of the router bit. But as a general guideline, make the tenon about 1 ⁄ 3 the total thickness of the tenoned workpiece, and about 1 ⁄ 2 – 2 ⁄ 3 as long as the width of the mortised workpiece. Aside from simple joining the two pieces together, a mortise hole and the tenon joint might need some help in securing the joint perfectly in place. How to Make Louvered Doors and Window Shutters, 7 Wood Joinery Methods That Use No Metal Fasteners, Joining Wood Together With Half Lap Joints. Most furniture or woodworking projects that use a mortise and tenon joint are capable of bearing only minimal to moderate loads. If you're doing woodworking on a shoestring budget, you'll be happy to know that the only tools you need to cut tight-fitting mortise and tenon joints are a square, knife and marking gauge, a fine-toothed saw, and a couple of sharp chisels and mallet. I decided to make a 25 x 75 mm (1" x 3") mortise and tenon. As you fit the joint inside the mortise, notice the part of the tenon where a sizeable amount of wood has to be removed. Because it has been around so long, and due to the variety of tools and techniques employed to form these workshop workhorses, there are several variations on this simple theme. Thinking about how to make the shoulder repair more stable, Dr. Cui and colleagues were inspired by an ancient technique from Chinese timber building: the mortise-tenon joint. You need a mallet or a standard hammer to work with a chisel to remove waste wood from the mortise hole. Choose your wood wisely; select wood according to the type of project that you have in mind. Here’s a rule of tumb when cutting mortise and tenon joints. Place the wood in the vice. It accommodates the dynamic movement of wood fibers and creates a super strong joint. Even the smallest of errors can spoil the joint or mar the symmetry of the project. Put the piece of timber in a vice on a slight angle to create a neater and straighter cut and then carefully cut along the lines. So, always try to cut the mortise first before the … A: Of course, the specific mortise-and-tenon size will vary by application, Michael. Step - by - Step Instructions 1. Remember that these two components fit each other so precision is the key. Now you will use a back saw to cut the tenon “cheeks”, or the faces of … You don’t want to drive the saw complete into the body of the tenon joint since this could weaken the joint. By cutting a step in the tenon you create a haunched tenon that provides a good, strong joint used for frame construction. The tenon is then cut to the same size as the mortise. The mortise is usually a square hole cut into end of one of the two material or woods that are to be joined. I'm going to lay out s… Dado Blades are a set of blades that you stack up in to make a very thick cutting blade that removes a lot of material at once, and it makes the table saw capable of doing all kinds of different joinery, including, making tenons very easily. 1. The embossed piece is the one that will go through the hole of the mortise. A fundamental joint for furniture-making, the mortise-and-tenon joint has been time-tested. Don’t miss out on all of the big sales in the Gadget Hacks and Null Byte shops. Consider that there are different kinds of wood with each one having their own qualities and good points. Wherever a jig is required for safety or quality of fit, please also include a photo or link to the type of jig mentioned. Copyright 2018 by Cut The Wood. Mark your board for the cuts. It really works and it’s really easy to do. You can find our guide on making a mortise and tenon here. Your workbench should be clean and free from debris before you begin with this project. Let the glue dry completely before continuing assembly. Clean the tenon joint to prepare it for fastening, 18. The mortise and tenon joint is a classic woodworking joint for joining rails and styles and frame-style construction of furniture. Step1: The first thing you must do is mark out the mortise or tenons and you can start with the tenons. These will be completely removed after you have finished creating the mortise hole. Continue driving the chisel until you are about less than an inch close to the other side of the mortise hole. Several different types of mortise and tenon joints can be constructed. A useful tip is to drive the saw hard onto the knife marks on the wood and once you have driven the saw almost halfway its body inside the wood tilt the saw and continue to work. A mortise and tenon joint is one of the strongest joints you can make to join two pieces of wood together. This type of joint is one of the most widely used and is popular in modern furniture designs to create a seamless and natural connection between two pieces. If you have followed How to Make a Mortise and Tenon joint part 1, you are now ready to start marking the Mortise. Two or More Bench chisels: These tools come in different sizes, picking one or two depends on the size of the work you’re doing. The trick is to drill the holes in 2 steps: Step one: Start by drilling a hole through the mortised piece. There is already a question about making mortise and tenon joints using hand tools. The tenon length is usually about 2/3rds … You can find examples of this ancient joint even in Egyptian furniture thousands of years old. The glue will harden and fix the two pieces permanently. Cleaning the tenon with sandpaper with a large grain could also help but make sure to fit the two pieces together first before you make any adjustments. But to work properly the joint needs to be tight - the tenon should be a push-fit in the mortise and should hold under its own weight. This joint can be pulled apart in two directions. Use a square to make sure that everything lines up, 4. Do you find it hard to make a mortise and tenon joint? Tenon is an old-time name for a square piece of wood that sticks out from the end of a board, and the mortise (or mortice in UK) is the square hole that the tenon fits into. 1. A novice woodworker has to learn how to accurately measure, cut wood and how to remove waste wood from the mortise or tenon joint. You might need to push the mortise in since the tenon was really created to be a bit larger than the mortise. The two elements that create this joint are the mortise hole and the tenon tongue. The essence of a mortise-and-tenon is that a peg or pin (the tenon) cut into one piece of wood fits tightly into a slot or hole (the mortise) cut into the adjoining piece of wood. Pinning a mortise and tenon joint is pretty straightforward. Coat all surfaces evenly with glue using a small brush. Be careful in driving the chisel in the tenon to avoid accidentally hitting the joint and ruining the work. Mortise and Tenon joints are an extremely old construction technique that has stood the test of time and is still being used today. A square is a handy tool to have around since it makes sure that all the lines needed to guide you as you make the mortise hole and tenon joint line up. Learn step-by step from Nashville woodworker and former Fine Woodworking editor Matthew Teague, how to prepare and assemble a drawbored mortise-and-tenon joint. Now you are done creating a tenon joint but not completely done finishing the piece. But as with every woodworking technique, a bit of know-how and a few tips can make the job easier and more successful. The joints are rounded when using a router, but they are just as strong as squared-off mortises and tenons. 3. Tenon is an old-time name for a square piece of wood that sticks out from the end of a board, and the mortise (or mortice in UK) is the square hole that the tenon fits into. Like the dovetail joint, a mortise and tenon can be carved by hand, but that requires a certain skill level and aptitude for using a wide variety of … 3. Rob Johnstone: Glue is designed to hold tight and not let go, so this is a serious problem. There are also mortising attachments that can be used with a plunge router. The video “How to make a Mortise and Tenon Joint – The Three Joints” is from Paul Sellers. So the unmodified joint would look like this. Therefore you need a working table with a reliable vice to grip the wood securely in place. The resulting joint looks like a butt joint but requires no screws or nails, and has remarkable strength and durability. To begin, the mortise and the tenon are made as usual. With mortises larger than that, I find I have better control by plunging the bit into the work with a plunge router rather than plunging the work onto the bit. If you are new to woodworking, take time to learn the basic techniques and then adapt these to modern and automated woodworking techniques. You will find it easier to understand new strategies when you have built a strong basic foundation of woodworking strategies and concepts. The mortise gauge is a special type of marking gauge and it is used to mark wood so that a mortise can be cut into it. A tenoning jig makes cutting tenons really easy. But as with every woodworking technique, a bit of know-how and a few tips can make the job easier and more successful. You don’t have to worry about these marks being seen since these are merely guide marks. Do the same thing for the other piece. Therefore, this size of beveled chisel will be used to chop off waste wood from the mortise. The mortise is the piece with a hole in it, and the tenon is the piece with an embossed piece attached to it (which is called the tongue). Therefore learning how to make a mortise and tenon joint from scratch is vital in the training of novice woodworkers. Traditionally, mortises were cut into the receiving piece of stock using a chisel and mallet. The marking tool will also be useful in marking the edges of the tenon joint. Use a hand saw to cut excess wood. By Bill Hylton. Synopsis: Learn how to build a versatile jig to cut mortises in three … How to Make a Mortise and Tenon Joint the Easy Way. The mortise hole is drilled or sawed into the end of a member, and the tenon tongue is fabricated according to a complimentary size. (1) Part 1 of 2 - How to Make a mortise and tenon joint, (2) Part 2 of 2 - How to Make a mortise and tenon joint. As with the mortise joint the knife marks on wood will be hardly noticeable as you use a saw to cut the waste wood. Move the larger chisel back and forth to finally ready the mortise to receive the tenon. It would be nice to also catalog the various ways of making mortise and tenon joints using power tools. After driving the mortise in, use a mallet or a hammer to join the two completely. The tenon from one piece of wood slots perfectly into the mortise of the other piece and when glued, you can usually avoid having to use nails altogether it’s so strong! A square edge will let you measure precisely where the mortise hole and tenon joint would be oriented in a 2x2. You will be surprised that after learning how to create a mortise hole and tenon joint, it would be easier to do other joints and joining techniques. A tenon needs to be a snug fit into the mortise, too tight and it may split the timber around the mortise, too loose and the joint will be weak. Bear in mind that the joint is strongest when the two pieces of stock are at right angles to one another. For a door this simple mortise tenon joint needs complicating slightly in two areas. Time to cut excess wood on the tenon joint. Careful measurement and precise marking and cutting are crucial. A Sharp Pencil or Pen: This is important because you need it to mark the important spots and lines … Wooden furniture that use a mortise and tenon could last for a long time and with the latest tools and materials used for woodworking, projects and furniture pieces could become more durable and stronger. Try This Versatile Mortising Jig. Prepare all the things you will need for the project. A step-by-step look at the process will give you a good, basic understanding. Cutting the Mortise. The video has received more than 1,200,000 views in YouTube and is one of the many videos Sellers has made over the years about a variety of woodworking techniques. A mortise and tenon joint is, at its most basic, a peg fit into a hole. Like what you did on the mortise joint wood to prepare it for chiseling, use a knife to create undulations on the wood so it can be easily worked on. Learning how to fabricate these joints will allow you to expand your skill set. This will become the shoulder where the tenon … If you cut mortises only occasionally, simply rough them out using a drill press to make a series of overlapping holes. To cut a mortise using a mortiser, simply mark the position of the area to be cut, and then sink the bit into the material, taking small bites at a time. Once the mortise and tenon have both been completed, dry-fit the tenon into the mortise. A good rule of thumb when creating mortise and tenon joints is to cut the mortise first, then the tenon. These pieces could be chairs, tables, cabinets, shelves, side tables and small wooden projects like picture frames and toys. A mortise and tenon joint is a joint that has been used for centuries and in fact it is one of the most basic techniques used in woodworking. Mortise and Tenon Joint Step 1: Tools. You will need:- A piece of wood probably soft wood 2 x 1 and 3′ long to practice on, a 1/4″ mortice chisel, a mortice gauge, a marking gauge a tenon saw, a marking knife, an HB pencil, a tri square, a mallet, a G-cramp, a bench and a bench hook.